An illustration of large fragments of the beard of the Great Sphinx of Giza. The fragments were uncovered by Caviglia during his 1817 excavations, illustrated by Henry Salt and finally published in Operations Carried on at the Pyramids of Gizeh in 1837 (Vol 3). The hieroglyphs behind the king, who is depicted making an offering, are translated by Mark Lehner as reading "life and protection around and behind him". The plaited style of the beard indicates that the Great Sphinx was regarded as a divinity.